Name: 
 

LE Evolution Online Review



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

1. 

Which statement is best supported by fossil records?
A.
Many organisms that lived in the past are now extinct.
B.
Species occupying the same habitat have identical environmental needs.
C.
The struggle for existence between organisms results in changes in populations.
D.
Structures such as leg bones and wing bones can originate from the same type of tissue found in embryos.
 

2. 

Which statement about the rates of evolution for different species is in agreement with the theory of evolution?
A.
They are identical, since the species live on the same planet.
B.
They are identical, since each species is at risk of becoming extinct.
C.
They are different, since each species has different adaptations that function within a changing environment.
D.
They are different, since each species has access to unlimited resources within its environment.
 

3. 

The first life-forms to appear on Earth were most likely
A.
complex single-celled organisms
C.
simple single-celled organisms
B.
complex multicellular organisms
D.
simple multicellular organisms
 

4. 

The diversity within the wild bird species in the diagram below can best be explained by which process?
le_evolution_review_files/i0050000.jpg
A.
natural selection
C.
asexual reproduction
B.
ecological succession
D.
mitotic cell division
 

5. 

A large population of cockroaches was sprayed with a newly developed, fast-acting insecticide. The appearance of some cockroaches that are resistant to this insecticide supports the concept that
A.
species traits tend to remain constant
C.
the environment does not change
B.
insecticides cause mutations
D.
variation exists within a species
 

6. 

When lions prey on a herd of antelope, some of the antelope are eliminated. Which part of the theory of evolution can be used to describe this situation?
A.
asexual reproduction of the fittest
B.
isolation
C.
survival of the best adapted
D.
new species development due to mutation
 

7. 

The process by which a species passes out of existence is known as
A.
endangerment
B.
deforestation
C.
extinction
D.
adaptation
 

8. 

Differences between the members of a population will most likely be passed to future generations if they are
A.
due to genetic changes and result in unfavorable variations
B.
due to genetic changes and result in favorable variations
C.
not due to genetic changes and result in unfavorable variations
D.
not due to genetic changes and result in favorable variations
 

9. 

How does natural selection operate to cause change in a population?
A.
The members of the population differ so that only some survive when the environment changes.
B.
The members of the population are equally able to survive environmental change.
C.
The members of the population cause environmental changes and adapt to them.
D.
All the members of the population adapt to environmental changes.
 

10. 

Many animals exist today in a form that is almost identical to the form they had a million years ago. What is the most probable explanation for this lack of evolutionary change?
A.
Genetic mutations have occurred among these animals.
B.
The environment of these animals remained about the same.
C.
These animals reproduce by sexual reproduction.
D.
Complex organisms evolved into simpler ones.
 

11. 

Which situation would most likely result in the highest rate of natural selection?
A.
reproduction of organisms by an asexual method in an unchanging environment
B.
reproduction of a species having a very low mutation rate in a changing environment
C.
reproduction of organisms in an unchanging environment with little competition and few predators
D.
reproduction of organisms exhibiting genetic differences due to mutations and genetic recombinations in a changing environment
 

12. 

Which statement best illustrates a rapid biological adaptation that has actually occurred?
A.
Pesticide-resistant insects have developed in certain environments.
B.
Scientific evidence indicates that dinosaurs once lived on land.
C.
Paving large areas of land has decreased habitats for certain organisms.
D.
The characteristics of sharks have remainedunchanged over a long period of time.
 
 
Use the following information and your knowledge of biology to answer questions 13-15:
   Two different species of crickets inhabited a meadow. One species of cricket had a straw-colored body and made up 90% of the total cricket population. The other species of cricket had a dark red body and made up 10% of the population. This proportion between the species had been constant for many years. A new variety of grass with purple blades appeared in the meadow. The purple grass was better adapted to the meadow environment than the native green grass and replaced the green grass within a period of 50 years.
 

13. 

The evolutionary concept that would explain the changes taking place during the 50-year period in both the crickets and grasses is called
A.
common ancestry
C.
homeostatic balance
B.
natural selection
D.
selective breeding
 

14. 

What is the most likely reason for the large proportion of straw-colored crickets in the original population?
A.
More straw-colored crickets than red were able to survive in the green grass.
B.
Few natural enemies of the straw-colored crickets lived in the meadow.
C.
The straw-colored crickets were larger and killed off most of the red crickets.
D.
Red-colored crickets were not a part of the fossil record for the meadow.
 

15. 

The appearance of the purple grass was most likely the result of
A.
asexual reproduction
C.
cloning
B.
genetic engineering
D.
mutation
 

16. 

Even though the environment changes, a population that occupies a given geographic area will most likely continue to be found in this area if the
A.
variations in the population decrease over time
B.
members of the population decrease in number
C.
members of the population exceed the carrying capacity
D.
population passes on those genes that result in favorable adaptations
 

17. 

When humans first domesticated dogs, there was relatively little diversity in the species. Today,there are many variations such as the German shepherd and the dalmation. This increase in diversity is most closely associated with
A.
cloning of selected body cells
C.
mitotic cell division
B.
selective breeding
D.
environmental influences on inherited traits
 

18. 

Information related to the organisms found on Earth during various geological time periods is represented in the chart below.
le_evolution_review_files/i0200000.jpg
Which statement concerning the first appearance of the organisms over the time period represented in this chart is most likely correct?
A.
Life on Earth has remained the same.
B.
Life on Earth has changed from primitive organisms to more complex organisms.
C.
Life on Earth began with complex organisms and changed to more complex organisms.
D.
Life on Earth has changed rapidly.
 

19. 

The diagram below illustrates a proposed evolutionary path of certain organisms, based on the theory of evolution.
le_evolution_review_files/i0210000.jpg
Which statement could best be inferred from the information in this diagram?
A.
Evolution does not involve gradual change.
B.
Evolutionary changes can result in extinction.
C.
Evolution begins with plants.
D.
Evolution produces organisms that all fill the same niche.
 

20. 

When the antibiotic penicillin was first introduced, it was immediately effective in combating staphylococcus bacterial infections. After a number of years, there were outbreaks of staphylococcal infections that did not respond to treatment with penicillin. The best explanation for this situation is that
A.
members of the original population of bacteria that were penicillin resistant survived and reproduced, creating a more resistant population
B.
the bacteria that survived exposure to penicillin learned to avoid it
C.
the bacteria that caused the new outbreaks were from populations that had never been exposed to penicillin
D.
during each generation, the bacteria modified their own DNA to increase their ability to resist penicillin and passed this ability on to their descendants
 

Short Answer
 

21. 

A certain chemical destroys bacteria that have thin cell walls. Bacteria with thick cell walls are not affected. Describe how the introduction of this chemical into a culture containing both types of bacteria could be used to illustrate the theory of natural selection.
 
 
Use the following diagram and your knowledge of biology to answer questions 22-24:
The diagram shows an interpretation of relationships based on evolutionary theory. The letters represent different species.
le_evolution_review_files/i0250000.jpg
 

22. 

The diagram indicates that a common ancestor for species C and E is species
      (1) F            (2) G            (3) H            (4) K
 

23. 

Which species in the diagram are least likely to be vital parts of a present-day ecosystem?
      (1) A and E      (2) C and D      (3) E and J      (4) B and F
 

24. 

Explain why species B and C are more closely related than species A and C are.
 
 
Use the following data and information to answer questions 25-27:
   An investigation was performed to determine the resistance of two species of Anopheles mosquito to the insecticides malathion and dieldrin. In May, two groups of 10,000 insects of each species were sprayed with insecticide. One group was sprayed with malathion, the second group with dieldrin. The number of surviving insects was recorded after the first spraying. The surviving insects were then allowed to reproduce. Several generations of new offspring were produced over the following three months. On the first day of each month they were sprayed, and the number of survivors was recorded in the table below.
le_evolution_review_files/i0290000.jpg
 

25. 

Which graph best represents the number of survivors after spraying in the Anopheles culifacies population from May to August?
le_evolution_review_files/i0300000.jpgle_evolution_review_files/i0300001.jpgle_evolution_review_files/i0300002.jpgle_evolution_review_files/i0300003.jpg
 

26. 

State one valid conclusion that can be drawn from these above data.
 

27. 

State one negative impact that the use of these two insecticides might have on the environment.
 

28. 

   A European species of rabbit was released on a ranch in Victoria, Australia. The species thrived and reproduced rapidly. The rabbits overgrazed the land, reducing the food supply for the sheep. The Myxoma sp. virus was used to kill the rabbits. The first time this virus was applied, it killed 99.8% of the rabbits. When the rabbits became a problem again, the virus was applied a second time. This time, only 90% of the rabbits were killed. When the rabbits became a problem a third time, the virus was applied once again, and only 50% of the rabbits were killed. Today, this virus has little or no effect on this species of rabbit.
   Explain what happened to the species of rabbit as a result of the use of this virus. You must include and circle the following terms in your answer. [4]
      - gene
      - adaptive value or adaptation or adapted
      - variation
      - survival of the fittest
 

29. 

When Charles Darwin was developing his theory of evolution, he considered variations in a population important. However, he could not explain how the variations occurred. Name two processes that can result in variation in a population.Explain how these processes actually cause variation.
 

30. 

Explain why, in a mammal, a mutation in a gamete may contribute to evolution while a mutation in a body cell will not.
 



 
Check Your Work     Reset Help